A fascinatingcombination of Indian and gentlemen's clothing! The red coat is double-breastedand can have the buff lapels folded back and buttoned to its own side likemilitary coats. There are numerous portraits of such clothes worn by men whoworked or lived with the Indians. One has a leather sash with fringed endswrapped around the waist and tied. It is worn under the coat, over the vest.
The Indian blanketwas traditionally worn like a cloak over the left shoulder, under the rightarm, and tied in front. It is shown over the arms here in order to show theclothing underneath. It is red, tan, brown, and black.
He wears Indianmoccasins and snug-fitting deerskin leggings drawn up over the buff breeches. They are gartered at the knees with Indian quillwork garters.
Quillworkdecoration is used on the black cap as well as feathers. This hat is anIndian-made version of the grenadier cap of the British Army during the SevenYears War. (It was originally worn by Austrian, Prussian, and Hessian armiesearlier in the century and had a metal plate in front.) Other homemade versionsof the grenadier cap were worn by some of the Continental Army regiments earlyin the Revolution (see Figure 130).
His cravat isblack and tied once, then tucked into the vest.
Scotch and Irishtraders who were “friend and brother"to the Indians roamed and worked overa 2,000-mile area in what is now Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1740s. SirWilliam Johnson had worked with Indians in the Mohawk Valley as early as 1738.
This costume andthat of Figure 160 are used mainly to demonstrate how clothing which followsthe trends of the time is adapted to certain needs and takes on a specialcharacter in doing this. These clothes are unique because of their particularcombination of items of clothing from more than one way of dressing and living.
(Worn during 80sand 90s) The Constitutional Convention of 1787 was com posed of men ranging inage from 26 to 81 so the representatives wore a variety of clothing. BenjaminFranklin still held to the large cuffs and full skirts of Figure 101. Most ofthe men have been pictured wearing clothes shown in Figures 110 and 111. Themore fashionable ones wear the suits of Figure 124 and this one, 146.
President GeorgeWashington chose for his inauguration in 1789 a simple brown suit, woven of 100percent American homespun. He wished to show, by not appearing in uniform, thatAmerica was a government of the people and not of the military. (For officials'robes see Figure 102.)
Figure 146 shows acoat with back splits that can be worn either single - breasted with the lapelsbuttoned back or lapped over in double-breasted fashion. Some gentlemen, likethis one, wore the coat casually with none of the buttons used for eitherfashion. Occasionally, the lapels were a lighter color than the coat. It had nocuffs, just the fashionable buttoned splits which revealed the shirt sleeve ruffle andwere often left open. Buttons were cloth-covered or steel.
Thedouble-breasted vest is made of brocade. It is turned back with lapels at thechest and shows the frill of the shirt opening (see Figure 73).
The 6reecries are cait-fengtfi so ffiaf frtey godown info frie 6oofs. f5uftons go up the leg several inches.
Boots are theEnglish style with the tops turned down to show the canvas lining. He wearsspurs. His boots have boot straps because they are quite snug. Shoes andstockings like those of Figure 124 were still worn.
The hair isnatural and worn in one roll over each ear with the back tied in a ribbon. Thetricorne hat remains in style.
In Edward Savage'spainting of The Washington Family (1789-96) Washingtonwears this suit. His favorite servant, Billy Lee, wears one almost identicalbut in a lighter color than Washington's.
One contemporary sketch of a riot(a farmers' rebellion of 1786) shows several men wearing this shirt, vest, and kneebreeches with vertically striped stockings. This man's hat is the large flathat tradition ally favored by farmers. Others in the group who also wear thestriped stockings have their hats folded up into tricornes. His costume istypical of the clothing worn by farmers at this time.
His hair is all pulled back andtied with a dark string. His black shoes have large buckles. Blue-and-whitevertically striped stockings were worn from the 1770s to 1810. Sometimes theywere horizontally striped. The dress of another protestor or rioter a few yearsearlier is shown in Figure 127.
In1775 Congress decided that the American army should wear brown be cause thatwas the dye easiest to obtain locally. Such orders as "Shirts and breechesmade of tow-cloth steeped in a tan-vat till the color of a dry leaf"resulted in many shades of brown since the men furnished their own.
Theonly uniforms at the time were for a few groups of militia and those ofWashington and his guards who wore blue coats with buff lapels and breeches. Even those militiamen who wore uniforms when they joined the fight soon foundthem worn and tattered. The choice, then, was to use hunting clothes when themilitia uniform was worn out or to wear the hunting clothes in camp and inbattle and save the uniform for dress wear.
Manypaintings show the calf-high gaiters with a peak in the back (left) during muchof the war. In 1778 it was decided that long buff trousers with a strap underthe foot should be worn (right).
Mostof the leather straps, belts, and pouches of the Americans had been taken asbooty during early battles.
TheLight Infantry Corps, an honor group selected from various regiments, wasformed in 1777. In 1780 each man in the corps was presented with a billed, hardleather cap (left). It had a bear fur crest and red and black plumes.
Inorder to distinguish officers, Washington decreed that Generals and staffofficers would wear baldrics over their vests, under their coats; Captainswould wear yellow cockades on their hats, with Lieutenants wearing green andfield officers red.
Somerecords show that the infantry from different colonies wore different color lapels evenafter an order of 1779 for uniformity. Massachusetts, Connec ticut, NewHampshire, and Rhode Island used white facings; Delaware, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, red facings; New Jersey and New York buff facings. Georgia and the Carolinas wore blue facings with buttonholes bound in white asin Figure 149.
In1778 the Massachusetts artillery regiment was equipped in new uniforms of blue coats with awhite lining and red lapels and cuffs. Vests and long trousers were white.
In1779 this Massachusetts uniform was adopted as the model for the uniform of theAmerican artillery throughout the colonies with butone change. The white lining which shows at the coattails would be red to matchthe lapels and cuffs. These uniforms were purchased in France.
Thisofficial American Continental Artillery uniform consists of a coat of dark bluewith red lapel facings, lining, and cuffs. The buttonhole facings are yellowand the buttons brass.
Thevest and breeches are white, his cravat is black. Sometimes the cravat and hairribbon are one and the same. It goes around the neck, ties, then ties aroundthe hair.
Thissoldier is an officer so he wears the red sash and epaulettes, sword, and blackboots of an officer. His hat is the gold-edged tricorne, also of an officer asare the white gloves.
Enlistedmen wore gaiters over shoes instead of boots. They wore two white shoulderstraps for holding the canteen, tomahawk, pouch, and bayonet and they carried amusket (see Figure 150 for straps).
In 1775 Congress had decreed thatbrown should be the official color of the American forces so in 1776 when aregiment made up mostly of Canadians was formed, they adopted brown coats withwhite lapel facings, cuffs, and lining.
The vest, knee breeches, andstockings were white also. The gre nadier hat, shoes, cravat, and short gaiterswere black. The two crossed shoulder straps were white.
One epaulette of red was worn bysergeants and one of green by corporal?.
When new uniforms were availablein 1779 the main change was the addition of new red collars, cuffs, lapels, andlinings to the brown coats. This made the uniform like the other new ones exceptthat brown replaced the blue.
Francejoined the war in 1778. A French army of 5,000 men arrived in Rhode Island inJune, 1780, sent by King Louis XVI to help the colonies. They were beautifullyequipped and dressed.
Formany years the French had had a preference for white uniforms. Their newuniforms were all white except for the trim which might be pale blue, pink, violet, yellow, grey, maroon, orange or green depending on the regiment. Onecontemporary artist showed them with maroon trim so we will use that color.
Onthe left an officer wears a white coat with maroon lapels with pearl buttons. It has a stand-up collar. The epaulettes and cuffs are maroon also. The buttonscontinue after the lapels and cuffs stop so, having a different background, they change to another color. When on white the buttons are maroon. He wearsstockings pulled up over his knee breeches and pantofles (see Figure 125). Somepictures show garters just below the knees. The pantofles seem to indicate theofficer is off duty at the moment.
Onthe right a soldier wears the white lapels which are bound on the edges with anarrow maroon binding or braid. The buttons are maroon and continue beyond thelapels and cuffs. The cuffs are maroon as on the other coat.
Hisgaiters come above the knees. They button all the way up the side. Sometimesgarters are worn on these gaiters as on stockings.
Bothwear black tricorne hats and black shoes.
Oneaccount says that the first order given by their commander after they arrivedin America was that they wear a black rosette in the center of the whitecockade on their hats as a gesture of friendship. Americans had previouslyadded white centers to their black cockades.
Bythe end of the 70s dresses were becoming softer, with smaller hoops and no panniers, although some women continued to wear them for a time.
Thejacket of Figure 134 is looser and softer now. It is worn over a crewel-embroidered dress of muslin or linen for a daytime dress. It has ruchingsaround the neck and front and ruffles on the short sleeves.
Thenewly fashionable dress underneath has long fitted sleeves on a soft bodicewithout a point. The simple skirt worn over a small hoop and petticoats hasonly a flounce around the hem. A large sash tied on the left side and a simpleribbon bow at the neck ruffle decorate the dress.
Themost outstanding thing about it is the embroidery. It is in blue-greens, salmon-pinks, yellows, browns, soft greens, and dull reds that come fromvegetable-dyed, homespun yarns.
Herhair is pulled up in front and put into a topknot. The back hair is softlyarranged.
Thecoach was invented near the end of the 16th century but was used very little inEurope during the 17th century while America was being settled. It was notuntil after the Revolution that coaches were used to any great extent. Evenwith the coach much overland travel had to be done on horseback or on footbecause of the lack of bridges over rivers and lack of roads.
Ladies'riding habits always reflected the current masculine style. This cuta way coathas cuffs and a collar. The little frogs imitate the frog closings on men'scoats (see Figure 124).
Thebrown satin jacket is worn over a simple brown dress with a full skirt and asash tied in a large bow at the back. She wears her ruffle-edged kerchief likea man's cravat and shirt frill. These kerchiefs often stand out quite far infront. They are also worn like that of Figure 154.
Herhair is in a masculine pigtail tied with a black bow. Her large beaver hat iscocked toward the front and turned up in the back. It is trimmed with plumesand brown ribbon band. Some women wore tricorne hats. She wears riding gloves.
Theseriding outfits were made in colors such as red, deep blue, or moss green withdark tones favored. Some of the coats were full-length. Some were not cutawaybut hung straight in front to the floor; whatever the length they wereimmensely popular for riding and for walking.
Walkingdresses were as popular as riding habits and much more practical. The walkingdress was in fact a result of many ladies wearing the fashionable new ridingjackets for walking.
Thejacket has a tight-fitting bodice and a skirt or peplum which flares out overthe full skirt. This peplum grows longer in back to form a bustle. Sleeves havebecome long and fitted. Necklines were low, sometimes with a collar and lapelslike that of Figure 153. Some were fastened with a bow in front as in Colorplate No. 12.
Whetherthey had collars or not a kerchief was always worn, sometimes two. Many had tworuffles, perhaps because they were a square with a ruffle all the way around, which became a triangle with two ruffles when folded. This kerchief was tuckedinto the bodice front center. Some crossed over before being tucked in. Somecrossed over on the outside and circled around to the back where they were tiedor pinned as in Figure 164.
Thefull skirt had a flounce around the bottom and although the hoop was no longerworn as much, several petticoats rounded out the silhouette.
Thislady wears a wide-brimmed hat with much gauze and ribbons on it. It ties underthe chin. She carries a walking stick. Parasols were carried also.
Herhair is much like that of Figure 131 but with long vertical curls, the lateststyle.
Ifone kerchief is pretty then two must be even prettier, and if large bonnets arepretty then even larger ones will be prettier! That seems to have been thefeeling of American women as bonnets grew to enormous proportions and two andeven three kerchiefs and collars were worn at once.
Thiswoman's dress has the open front skirt of former years decorated with rows ofshirring down the front, on the petticoat and the sleeves. Shirring is like aruffle, only gathered on both sides so that it is somewhat flat.
Althoughthis was the fashionable dress of a few years earlier, she has updated it tothe current styles. She wears a triangular black lace kerchief directly overthe bodice. It is pinned in place around her shoulders, still leaving her neckbare. Over this she wears a semicircular kerchief of sheer white with a rufflearound it. These kerchiefs were sometimes sewn together in front so that theyhad to be slipped over the head but most were pinned in place so that theyoverlapped slightly. Pins became so scarce during the war that women had toresort to using thorns.
Thecustom of wearing two kerchiefs was evidently prevalent in all the colonies, for dozens of portraits show them. Sometimes the black kerchief was worn on topof the white one as in Figure 165. Sometimes a white kerchief was worn overanother white one as in Figure 177. This continued into the 1830s (see Figure217). The clean, fresh white kerchief and crisp white bonnet became practicallyour national costume.
Thishuge bonnet is crisp, especially the ruffle which frames the face. The ribbonsare caught at the center front, then go down each side in a series of folds, each one looping up under the one above it. This method of applying ribbon isused over and over again.
Shewears a locket or miniature portrait on a black cord looped and tied around herneck.
Oneof the earliest known advertisements in America for imported shawls appeared inthe SalemGazette in1784. Shawls as well as kerchiefs would increase in popularity over the nexttwo decades.
Younggirls wore big hats and kerchiefs like their mothers.
Thisgirl's simple bodice has a wide, low neck like the women's dresses. Herelbow-length sleeves have a ruffle with a standing edge.
Herskirt is pulled up, folded over, and fastened to expose the petticoat. This isdone to keep it out of the way when she plays, and to keep it clean. Hers maybe secured with thorns because of the shortage of pins.
Theyellow dress has a white kerchief brought loosely around the shoulders, crossedover in front and tied in back.
Herlarge hat has plumes and ribbons like those of adults.
Little girls, aswell as adults and older girls, wear the kerchief. This one is pulled up closeto the neck, crossed over in front and snugly tied in back to keep it fromfalling off the shoulder as in Figure 156. The dress is probably muslin. Somechildren's dresses were already being con structed like that of Figure 182.
Her wide sleevescome to the elbow and are untrim med. Her skirt is up off the floor a little. Some skirts were several inches above floor-length.
Her bonnet rufflecomes in at the front to expose the ringlet bangs of her hair. It has a pinkribbon.
The baby isdressed in an outfit almost identical. In stead of a kerchief, her (or his)dress has a ribbon sash tied in back; there is a ruffle at the neck, and plainwide sleeves to the elbow.
The bonnet has aribbon rosette in front. The shoes are red, a color already popular which willbecome quite common in a few years.
The ribbons on thebonnet and dress may be either pink, blue, or red.